Chile Series (1) Easter Island (Rapa Nui) 智利系列 (1) 復活節島 (拉帕努伊)

Important: Since I only visited Easter Island for 3-4 days, all information and thoughts here are based on tour guides, Chilean friends and literature research. There might be mistakes and biases. Happy to discuss! 【重要:因為我只在復活節島待了 3-4 天,所有的資訊與想法都源自於導遊、智利朋友與相關文獻,因此可能會有疏誤或偏見。歡迎討論!

Content: Modern Society, History and Moai, Other Thoughts and Travel Tips 【本篇內容包含復活節島的現況、歷史與摩艾、其他初步想法與旅遊資訊

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Modern Society of Easter Island 【復活節島的現況

1. The population is ~7k, and ~3k are from the mainland Chile and other countries. People love living here due to the low crime rate, hospitality, relaxing atmosphere and amazing nature. 【島上人口約七千人,其中三千人來自本土智利或其他國家。因為低犯罪率、熱情、放鬆的氛圍和美好的自然景觀,人們喜歡住在這個島

2. Young people want to leave the island, but usually after several years, they move back due to unhappiness. Because of this, governments have a special program to help local high school students better prepare for their study in the mainland, especially the mental part. 【年輕人想離開這島,但通常幾年後,他們又因為不開心而搬回來。因此,政府設立特別的專案輔導當地高中生,讓他們更能適應本土的生活,特別是心態準備的方面

3. The local government offers free education from elementary school to high school, but students need to go to the mainland for universities. 【政府提供當地居民從小學至中學的免費教育,但學生必需到本土接受大學教育

4. There’s only one small public hospital, and urgent cases need to be transferred to Santiago through ambulance flights. Healthcare is free for local people. For Chileans, they need to pay 20% of monthly income for health insurance. Without the coverage, it takes >50 USD to see a doctor. 【這裡只有一間小型公立醫院;緊急情況發生時,必需由救護飛機送到首都。當地人看醫生免費。智利人需支付 20% 的月薪買健保;如果不買,每次看醫生要付50塊美金以上

5. They have one locally elected mayor and one centrally assigned governor, who must be an indigenous person. Governor has larger power, so local people feel they are still colonized by Chile as second-class citizens. 【當地有兩位首長:島民選出的市長和中央指派的官員。官員權力比首長大,所以島民覺得好像還是被智利殖民,是次等公民

In addition, because Chilean didn’t take care of the local during (1) late 19th when Peruvian came here to get slaves and (2) early 20th when a large wool company governing here treated the local like slaves, they hate and distrust Chilean. 【此外,在 (1) 19世紀晚期秘魯人來做奴隸買賣、(2) 20世紀初期羊毛公司統治時期對待當地人如奴隸的兩段時期,智利人沒有保護當地人,所以他們討厭也不信任智利人

Therefore, local people always want to have independence, either be totally independent from Chile, or to have independent control and law system though under the Chilean government. 【因此,當地人總是希望可以獨立。一種為完全獨立於智利,另一種則是附屬於智利,但保有獨立自主的權利與法律系統

6. On the island, Chileans have their own community because local people hate them. Moreover, old Chilean residents don’t hang out with new comers because they feel they are superior. “Chain of discrimination” again! 【因為島民討厭智利人,所以智利人和島民不相往來;舊智利人又覺得自己比新智利人好,所以也不理新智利人:標準的歧視鏈!

7. A controversial Chilean president Pinochet in 90s made the rule that only local people could buy local land, so the local can move out of the town while Chilean only stay in downtown. That’s why local people love Pinochet. 【90年代具爭議性的總統Pinochet規定只有當地人能買地,所以當地人可以住在任何地方、但智利人只能待在市區。因此,當地人都很推崇Pinochet

8. Most people work on tourism-related industries and import all things incl. fresh food, grocery and oil from the mainland. That’s why everything is expensive here. 【目前多數人都從事觀光相關產業,並從本土進口所有物資,包含新鮮食物、家用品、石油等。所以物價非常高!

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History of Easter Island and Moai【復活節島的歷史與摩艾

1. Rapa Nui people built Moai and buried ancestors’s bones under Moai in the hope that ancestors would protect their families. 【拉帕努伊人建造摩艾,並將先人葬在摩艾之下,以期能獲得先人的保祐

2. Due to limited land and resources, the tension among tribes increased. People started building larger and larger Moai to demonstrate their power. Reminds me of the history of Angkor Wat.【因為土地與資源有限,部落間的關係漸趨緊張。此時,人們開始建造越來越大的摩艾以展現實力,讓我想起吳哥窟也是這樣

3. In mid-18th, people pushed down each other’s Moai, and the society collapsed, leading to disbelief in Moai religion. Some suspected it’s due to internal wars while others attributed it to foreign power after the first foreigner, a Dutch, visited. 【18世紀中,人們推倒彼此的摩艾,當地社會全面瓦解,引發信仰危機。有人懷疑是內部戰爭,也有人認為是在第一位荷蘭人登陸後,受到外國勢力影響

4. After the collapse, people started believing in birdman. They held annual competition – warriors from tribes swim to a nearby island to get bird eggs. Who got the first egg back, then the tribe became the leader of the island for one year. 【在社會瓦解後,人們開始新的鳥人信仰。每年各部落的戰士必須游泳至附近小島尋找鳥蛋。第一個帶回鳥蛋的部落,將成為該年的全島統治者。

5. Since French priest pushed the local burning all documents, no one could know the real Rapa Nui history anymore. Whenever I read history, I dislike these narrow-minded religions more and more. In Buddhism or Taoism, it’s rare to ask followers to abandon culture or destroy other beliefs. 【由於法國傳教士驅使島民燒毀所有文獻記載,拉帕努伊的歷史失傳,至今仍然眾說紛紜、無人能解。每次看這些歷史,都越來越討厭這些心胸狹窄的宗教。在佛道教裡,很少有鼓吹人捨棄文化或催毀其他信仰的論述

6. In 60s, big earthquake in Bolivia led to tsunami, destroying lots of Moai. Since Japanese were experienced in post-tsunami restoration, they raised $2m to help rebuild Moai. 【60年代,波利維亞大地震引發海嘯,損毀大量摩艾。因為日本人是海嘯後重建專家,他們募集200萬美金協助重建摩艾

7. The red hat was actually Moai‘s hair. For Rapa Nui, hair told them everything about people’s health. It’s said that they couldn’t cut their hair. 【紅色的帽子其實是摩艾的頭髮。對拉帕努伊人而言,頭髮是判斷健康的依據。傳說人們是不能剪頭髮的

8. How to transport Moai? Now the most accepted theory is to use a wooden triangle structure to move the bottom of a standing Moai step by step. It’s said that people used mashed sweet potato to smoothen moves. 【如何運送摩艾?普遍的說法是運用三角形的木頭結構,挪動站立的摩艾底部來進行運送;也有傳說人們使用蕃薯泥來當運送的潤滑劑

9. Moai has body with big belly and long arms. It is 3-4 times taller than Moai’s head. However, to preserve it, people decided to bury the body back to the underground. 【摩艾有身體、大肚子與長手臂。身體約為頭部的3-4倍高。然而,為保存摩艾,人們決定將其重新埋回地下

10. In Moai factory, people just carved the shape of Moai. All details like hands, eyes and hair were carved after Moai arrived its destination. Some huge Moai had been abandoned before finished. The largest one is 21 meters in height. 【在摩艾工場裡,人們只雕刻摩艾的形狀。所以的細節(頭髮、眼睛、手指等)都是等摩艾抵達目的地後才進行雕刻部份超巨大摩艾尚未完工就被拋棄。最大的有21公尺高!

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Other Initial Thoughts of Easter Island 【其他關於復活節島的初步想法】

1. In 19th, Peruvian got slaves from the island, and 90% died due to work or disease. Only ~110 people got back to the island. It’s suspected that due to inbreeding, some residents are suffering from mental illness nowadays. In early 20th, a wool company came and forced all people to move to the super small downtown. Until now, most people still stay around this area. 19世紀時,秘魯人來島上抓奴隸,其中90%死於工作與疾病,只有約110人回到島上。有人懷疑近親繁殖為近代部份島民有精神疾病的原因20世紀初,羊毛公司為放牧需求,逼迫島民集中住在非常小面積的範圍內。至今,多數人仍居住在此範圍附近

These stories reminds me of the main message in the business history class: companies shaped people’s lives. They should definitely take a certain level of social responsibilities. 【這些故事讓我想起這學期商業歷史課中的主要訊息:企業改變人類的生活,他們應該肩負一定程度的社會責任

2. Besides history issues, local people hate Chileans also because they make the local dependent on mainland on modern (e.g. medicine) and bad products (e.g. drug, alcohol) and abandon their ancients’ wisdom. 【在歷史因素外,島民還控訴智利讓島民依賴他們提供的現代產品或負面產品(如:藥物、毒品、酒精),而導致島民遺忘先人的智慧、毒品或酒精上癮等

Yes, importing projects causing bad effects is immoral. However, sometimes I suspect that the local might overemphasize how badly Chileans are treating them and neglect benefits they received (e.g. free education and healthcare) as well as the modern global trends. 【我同意進口毒品是不道德的。然而,有時候我不禁覺得當地人過份醜化智利,而忽略了他們接受到的好處(例:免費的教育、醫療,免稅),也忽略了當代全球趨勢

The local calls Chilean “tigers” and draws graffiti to ask Chilean to leave. Racism and nationalism dominates the island, leading to lots of anger and resentment. 【當地人稱智利人「老虎」,並在鎮上畫塗鴉要求智利人離開。種族歧視與國族主義在島上非常盛行,導致氣氛充滿仇恨與憤怒

3. Two years ago, local people had a protest against Chilean government because the government collected National Park entrance fee ($20/person) but didn’t reinvest the island. 【兩年前,島民覺得智利政府收了每人20美元的國家公園入園費卻毫無作為,因此發起抗議活動

They occupied gates, hotels and tourist spots and forced the government to release the control power back to local people. Since then, only local people can work for the Park and control the money. In addition, additional fee for foreigners is charged ($80/person). 【他們佔據公園入口、旅館與景點,迫使智利政府移轉管理權給當地人民。從此以後,只有島民可以控制公園收入、在公園工作,且外國人的入園費調漲為每人80美元。

Though there’s no evidence for any potential significant investment until now, people are positive about the results. 【雖然尚未有證據顯示島民將運用這筆收入進行任何建設,但普遍對抗爭結果滿意

4. An American archeologist helped the restoration of Moai and stayed here for his whole life. He’s well liked and respected by the local. However, now some local people start covering Moai to not let new archeologists discover because they don’t want archeologists to change anything anymore. 【有位美國考古學家協助摩艾遺蹟修復,並在此終老;島民喜歡並敬重他。然而,有些島民開始覆蓋遺蹟、不讓考古學家發現,因為他們不希望考古學家再更動任何遺蹟

The motivation is understandable. However, if the local wants to preserve the culture and interpret all mysteries in their history, shouldn’t it be more beneficial to open up and leverage outside resources? 【島民的動機是可以理解的。然而,如果真心希望可以保存文化、破譯歷史迷團, 採取開放的態度並運用外部資源,不是更為有利嗎?

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Travel Tips of Easter Island【復活節島旅遊資訊

1. Flight: Besides other Polynesia islands, only Santiago has flights to Easter Island, operated by LATAM airline. Flights are sold out very fast, so better to book as early as possible. 機票:在波里尼西亞島群之外,只有聖地牙哥有飛往復活節島的班機,由 LATAM 航空運行。機票很快就賣完了,所以最好盡早確定行程

2. Accommodation: Most people stay in downtown area, Hanga Roa, very convenient. Cheaper options are sold out very early, so better to book when flights are confirmed. 【住宿:多數人都住在市區 Hanga Roa,相當方便!比較便宜的選項很快就被訂完,所以最好機票確認後就快點訂住宿

3. Restaurants: Empanadas Tia Berts (empanadas are delicious); Moai Sunset (great food with excellent view of sunset)【餐廳:Empanadas Tia Berts (好吃的 empanada); Moai Sunset (食物好吃、景色又美,還可以看日落)

4. Travel agents: I booked the A and B tours on Easter Island Travel since they covered all important tourist spots. Expensive but the quality is really good – tour guides never pushed us and were willing to share a lot. We ended tours at around 4pm on both days. 【旅行團:我訂了 Easter Island Travel 的 A 團和 B 團,因為他們把所有重要景點都包含在行程內了。雖然很貴,但品質很好,導遊從不催促我們快點行動。兩天行程大概都在下午四點結束

5. Internet: For SIM card, only Entel works on the island. For wifi, most hotels or hostels only provide wifi in public area. The park on the main street also provides wifi. 【網路:只有 Entel 的 SIM 卡可以在當地使用,而多數旅館都只在公共空間提供 wifi;另外,主要街道上的公園有免費 wifi

6. Budget: Group tour is around USD 90 per day. Dining out is around the same level as Santiago: USD 20-30 per main course and USD 7-12 per empanada or sandwich. Bringing food into the island is okay, but you cannot bring fresh food out of the island. 【預算:旅行團約一天 90 美金。外食大概跟聖地牙哥的價錢差不多,約 20-30 美金一道主菜、 7-12 美金一份 empanada 或三明治。可以攜帶食物到島上,但不可以帶任何新鮮蔬果離開

7. Transportation: You can rent car, motorbike or bicycle. Must bring driver’s licenses for renting car and motorbike. 【交通:可以租汽車、機車、腳踏車。租汽機車的人一定要帶相關的駕駛執照

8. Weather: Weather in October is unstable. Better to bring umbrella or rain coat. Tour guides said the best timing to visit the island should be May. 【天氣:十月天氣變化大,建議帶傘或雨衣。導遊說來島上的最好時間應該是五月

9. Must-See: Rano Raraku (Moai factory); Tongariki (15 statues of Moai, sunrise); Orongo (birdman cult, crater); Anakena (beautiful beach with Moai); Tahai (Moai with eyes, sunset) 【推薦景點:Rano Raraku (摩艾工廠); Tongariki (15座摩艾、日出); Orongo (鳥人信仰、火山坑); Anakena (有摩艾的美麗海灘); Tahai (有眼睛的摩艾、日落)

10. Number of Days: At least 2-3 days for visiting Moai. If you are interested in hiking or water activities, then maybe 2-3 extra days would be good. 【天數:至少 2-3 天看完摩艾景點,如果對健行或水上活動有興趣,則大概需要額外再加 2-3 天

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