HKS India Trek (3) Summary 印度參訪總筆記

“Incredible India” was the slogan for tourism in India years ago, and I think it perfectly depicts the country full of contradictions – chaos versus beauty, religious conflicts versus diverse communities, capitalism versus socialism, etc. Incredible India, glad to be back after almost ten years.

「不可思議的印度」是幾年前的印度觀光口號,我認為它完美地呈現在印度並存的各種衝突:混亂與美麗,種族衝突與多元社群,資本主義與社會主義。不可思議的印度,很開心可以在將近十年後回來。

I like the vibrant atmosphere with abundant culture and confident people. There are always many things going on, from advanced technology to night markets, from Hinduism temples to Muslim mosques. No matter how many problems or challenges, people are confident in themselves to have a better country.

我喜歡印度充滿文化的活潑氛圍,與充滿自信的人們。在印度,隨時都有好多事情發生,從先進科技到夜市,從印度寺廟到穆斯林清真寺。無論有多少問題或挑戰,人們總是相信他們能擁有更好的國家。

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Anti-corruption 反貪腐】

In 2011, a large scale anti-corruption movement pushed for legislative changes in India. Although hostile attacks between parties caused serious tension between local and central governments, strong support from the people enabled the movement to achieve some initial results such as increased tax income, higher reporting rate and some attempts in legislative changes.

在2011年,一場大規模的反貪腐行動促成印度的制度改革。雖然政黨惡鬥導致中央與地方政府間的緊張關係,來自人民的強烈支持,使得該行動能取得初步成果,包含稅收增加、舉報率增加和推動法律改革的數次嘗試。

However, some people argued that legislation without enforcement cannot fight corruption effectively. A proposal was to digitize government and simplify processes to reduce the space for corruption, but the huge regional disparity might make the implementation unrealistic in the short term.

然而,有些人認為只有法律改革、沒有強而有力的執行,無法有效打擊貪腐。其中一種提案為數位化政府與精簡流程以降低可貪腐的空間。然而,巨大的城鄉差距讓這項提案在短期內難以實施。

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Education 教育】

How to shorten the gap between public and private education is definitely on top of the agenda in education policies. In the past, most efforts were put in basic hardware improvement in public schools, but now main cities can start shifting focus to quality improvement such as salary increase and job training for teachers. However, how to balance the development in urban and rural areas is still challenging.

如何縮短公立與私立學校的品質差異絕對是印度教育政策的關鍵目標之一。過去,多數投資都用在公立學校的基礎設備改善,但現在主要城市已經開始能移轉重心至教學品質改善,例:教師的薪資成長與職業訓練。然而,如何平衡城鄉發展的差距,仍然相當不容易。

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Free market 自由市場】

In contrast to China’s protection policies, India is open for international companies and becomes one of the most important destinations for foreign direct investment. To compete with international companies, local players leverage their advantages in deep understanding of customers, innovation and low-cost labor to win in the market. However, opening up the market might lead to the concern of economic colonization and economical volatility. How to ensure that the local companies can grow while introduce global competition into this country is important.

相較於中國的保護政策,印度對國際公司更加開放,已成為全球境外投資的主要目的地之一。為與國際公司競爭,當地企業藉助在了解消費者、創新與低成本勞力的優勢,在各產業取得一席之地。然而,開放市場可能導致經濟殖民、經濟不穩定的問題。如何在將全球競爭導入印度的同時,確保當地企業可以持續成長,是相當重要的議題!

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Fake news 假新聞】

Fake news is also an issue in India, especially on certain topics like conflicts between Hinduism and Muslim. Same to Taiwan, older generations might receive lots of fake news through instant message APPs. Since none of the media has large audience base to generate enough subscription revenue, it’s hard to change the current advertisement-based revenue model.

印度也有假新聞的問題,特別是在一些敏感的議題,如:印度教徒和穆斯林間衝突。和台灣一樣,老一輩的人經常在即時通訊軟體上接收到假新聞。然而,因為沒有單一媒體具有足夠大的閱聽群體以支持付費訂閱的商業模式,改變既有衝流量、靠廣告獲利的模式相當困難。

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【Digitization 數位化政府】

Digitization can help India to reduce the complexity in doing business locally, promote anti-corruption and increase government efficiency. To speed up the path, central government makes local governments compete with each other and publish the ranking of digitization instantly to push them improving.

數位化政府可以幫助印度改善在印度做生意很複雜的問題,同時也有益於推行反貪腐、提升政府效能。為加快推行的腳步,中央政府讓地方政府彼此競爭,並即時將數位化排名與數據上傳,激勵地方政府努力。

Indian government collaborated with the private sector closely on digitization. For example, Tata group helped government on initiatives like e-VISA, security and agricultural management. However, how to integrate with the current systems and roll out nationally is challenging.

印度政府和民間企業緊密合作、推動數位化。例如:塔塔集團協助政府推動 e-VISA、國安、農業管理等計劃。然而,如何與既有系統整合、推行至全國,都是相當具挑戰性的!

 

Reference Blogs 參考網誌

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