HKS Israel Trek 哈佛甘迺迪學院以色列參訪團筆記

Took the “Jewish Culture” course ten years ago, listened to Idan Raichel five years ago, and finally came to Israel in 2017. Zionism, Holocaust, Palestine, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, Jerusalem, Syria, Iran… There are definitely many serious issues in Israel. The tour guide said: “this is really a special group that you talk about lots of conflicts and politics, but I want you to know that Israel is also a really beautiful country.” Look at the mountains, ocean and desert!【十年前修猶太文化的課,五年前聽以色列歌手Idan Raichel唱歌,2017年終於來到以色列。猶太復國、大屠殺、巴勒斯坦、戈蘭高地、加薩走廊、耶路撒冷、敘利亞、伊朗… 以色列面對著許多嚴肅的議題。導遊說:「你們真的是很特別的一團、將重點擺在衝突與政治,但我希望你們知道,其實以色列也是個很美的國家。」看看那山、那海和沙漠!】

IMG_4067

In international media, Israelis are tough, aggressive and maybe warlike, but in daily life, Israelis are actually nice, easygoing and cheerful. I agree that we need to condemn Israel on settlements and discrimination, but I just want to take a break here to say how I appreciate some beautiful people here. While constantly facing threats in security, a mother stays along the Gaza border for her soldier son; a young woman fights for transparency in parliament; entrepreneurs try to connect Israeli and Arab to remove mistrust; a Christian Arabic family tries to survive as minorities… Humanity is always shining in difficulty.【在國際媒體裡,以色列人強硬、野心勃勃、好戰;但在日常生活中,以色列人其實善良、容易相處、歡樂愉快。我同意我們必需譴責以色列的屯墾區、歧視問題,但我在這希望能暫停一下談談觸動我心的人們。在時常面對安全威脅時,一位母親留在危險的加薩走廊以陪伴當軍人的兒子,一位年輕女政治家為國會透明而奮鬥,幾位創業家通過連接猶太人和阿拉伯人來降低衝突,一個天主教阿拉伯家庭努力在此生活… 人性總在困難中閃閃發光。】

Thank you for the amazing week, organizers and HKS folks! Hope one day we can have peace in Israel/Palestine and Taiwan/China.【謝謝組織團隊、HKS朋友們帶給我很棒的一週。希望以色列/巴勒斯坦、台灣/中國都能夠在未來擁有和平】

IMG_3752

1. A Day Visiting Jerusalem and Holocaust Memorial【沉重的一天:參觀耶路撒冷和二戰猶太人大屠殺紀念館】

Jerusalem, meaning two complete cities, connects human being (the real city) to the God (the spiritual city). While separated into Islamic, Jewish and Christian areas, the old city carries all conflicts silently and peacefully in the center of the world. 【耶路撒冷的意思為兩個完整的城市:一個屬於人類、一個屬於上帝。連接兩個世界的古城雖然被分割成猶太、伊斯蘭和基督教三區,但就這麼寧靜祥和地帶著衝突座落在世界中心】

Kids here don’t go to same schools as it would be difficult to have a narrative acceptable to the three. Western Wall is open to everyone while Islamic shrine can only be accessed by Muslim; however, Israeli controls the security and decides who can enter the shrine. Conflicts exist everywhere, but life goes on. 【因為三方人馬尚未達成共識、統一說詞,孩童們從不在一個學校上學。猶太教的哭牆開放給所有人,但伊斯蘭聖殿則要會背可蘭經的穆斯林才能進入;然而,以色列人卻掌握安檢的通行權,可隨時禁止他人進入。衝突無處不在,但日子仍一天天得過下去】

Holocaust Memorial was built as a triangle to express the pressure Jews felt in Europe. One end was playing a documentary while the other end with ascending stairs and sun light, just like how Jews survived and built their own country in the hope of bright future. 【大屠殺紀念館建成三角型,代表猶太人在歐洲受到的壓迫。從播放記錄片的一端走向逐漸上升、陽光灑落的一端,也代表著猶太人帶著對光明未來的希冀建國】

While listening to how deliberate German was to design death and concentrated camps and how the Jews suffered in Holocaust, I teared up several times out of disbelief of the cruelty and the banality of evil. 【當聽著德國人如何精細化地設計集中營、猶太人受難的故事時,來來回回眼眶紅了好幾次,始終難以接受這樣的殘忍與平庸的邪惡】

From religious conflicts to ethnic cleansing, people here experienced some of the most unbearable history. Until now, most Israelis don’t believe they can solve all issues in their lives. 【從宗教衝突到種族清洗,這裡的人經歷了一部份最難以承受的歷史。時至今日,多數以色列人仍不相信有生之年能解決所有問題】

IMG_4226

2. As the state of Jews, Israel has issues in racial integration. 【身為猶太國家,以色列存在族群融合問題

Discrimination: Arabs’ special accent in Hebrew prevents them from getting jobs, and the government prohibits Arabs to work in many industries due to security issues. To live in the settlement with lower housing price, Arabs need to get approval from a special committee and easily get rejected. 【歧視:阿拉伯人講希伯來語(以色列官方語言)的特殊腔調會影響他們在以色列找工作,政府也會因為安全理由而禁止阿拉伯人在許多產業工作。當以色列人享有便宜的屯墾區居住權時,阿拉伯人必須取得特殊委員會核准,但往往被拒絕

Education: Jews go to same schools, and the rest attend other schools. The budget for Jewish schools is several times higher than other schools. The separation results in the lack of mutual understanding and deeply rooted stereotypes. 【教育:猶太人念相同學校,其他族群則念另外一些學校。給猶太學校的預算是其他學校的好幾倍。這樣的隔離導致缺乏互相了解、根深蒂固的刻板印象

Marriage: though people from different religions might hang out together, they cannot get married by law as they need to go to religious places (Jewish synagogue, Catholic church…) to get married. Some cross-religious marriages are done in Greece, and these couples will move from conservative villages to Tel Aviv. 【婚姻:雖然不同信仰的人可以當朋友,但因為法律規定要在各自的宗教場所 (猶太教會堂、天主教堂) 結婚,所以其實無法跨信仰結婚。一些跨信仰的夫妻通過到希臘結婚、再從鄉村搬到大都市台拉維夫來克服困難

Political perspectives: minorities like Arabs feel like second class citizens and dislike the claim of Israel as the state of Jews, and most of them are underrepresented in governments. “In the U.S., strength comes from diversity, but in Israel, suspicion comes from diversity” said by an Israeli entrepreneur. 【政治觀點:少數族群像阿拉伯人覺得自己是次等公民、不喜歡以色列宣稱自己是猶太國家,在社會中幾乎沒有政治音量。一位以色列創業家說:在美國,多元帶來力量;在以色列,多元只帶來猜忌

IMG_3751

3. Internal Issues of Israel【以色列的內政問題】

The current dominant party secretly moved budget from social benefits to political causes like building settlement. While 65% Israelis support two-state policy (having two separate countries for Israel and Palestine), the government continues expanding territory to achieve its goal of one-state solution (unifying the two to become a binational country). Corruption and the desire for greater power block Israeli government from achieving regional peace. 【目前主導以色列的政黨將國家預算中的社會福利支出秘密挪至政治用途、在巴國領土興建屯墾區。當65%以色列人支持以巴各自獨立時,政府持續擴張佔領巴國領土、以實現「大以色列」內含以巴兩種族群的理想。貪腐與對權力的渴望讓以色列政府無法實現區域和平】

IMG_3820

4. Internal Issues of Palestine【巴勒斯坦的內政問題】

Corruption and incompetence: gulf countries have provided lots of money to Palestine authority for refugee camps, but the government did nothing. Palestinians are also upset with the government’s incompetence to defend when Israeli polices came in to arrest/shoot people freely. The ongoing conflict among political parties makes thing even more complicated. 【貪腐與無能:波斯灣國家提供巴勒斯坦很多錢改善難民營居住條件,但政府什麼都沒做。巴國人民也對政府無力抵抗以色列強行穿越邊境逮捕/殺害巴國人民感到憤怒。而不同政黨間的衝突讓問題更加複雜】

Education: The family education system seems to be broken as parents cannot guide children to understand that violence won’t lead them to peace. For example, some kids compose songs about killing Israeli, and young people voluntarily conduct suicide attacks to Israel every day. 【教育:家庭教育系統崩毀,父母無法引導子女認清暴力無法解決問題。例:孩子們編關於殺害以色列人的歌曲;每天都有年輕人則自願發動自殺攻擊。】

Living Standard: 65% unemployment rate and extravagance result in difficult economic environment. Palestinians take more loans than their income and have an unsustainable living style. “Stop blaming everything to the occupation!”, said by a Palestine journalist. It reminds me of the constant blaming of China-Taiwan conflict for economic downturn in Taiwan. To be fair, we all can do a bit better than what we do now although we always cannot separate internal issues from external problems.  【生活水平:65%失業率和奢侈浪費導致經濟困難。巴國人民貸款大於收入、揮霍無度。「別再什麼都怪以色列了!」一位巴勒斯坦記者這麼說,讓我想起台灣也有什麼問題都怪統一的傾向。平心而論,我們都可以做得比現在更好一點,就算內政問題永遠都不能和外部問題切割開來談。】

IMG_4237

5. A Day Visit the Israeli Communities nearby the Gaza Strip【參訪靠近加薩走廊的以色列社區】

The governance of the Gaza Strip is dominated by Hamas. While initially, media predicted that Hamas would fail, but actually they won 2/3 supporting rate. Hamas adopts aggressive strategy (e.g. Hamas and Israel shoot missiles to each other frequently), leading to huge international pressure on this region, but recently it becomes relatively quiet. In general, although Hamas is criticized by terrorist attacks, they gain support in Palestine due to limited corruption compared to other Palestine authority. 【控制加薩走廊的是哈瑪斯政權。一開始,媒體預測哈瑪斯會失敗,但實際上他們擁有2/3以上的支持度。哈瑪斯對以色列採取激進的手段(例:經常和以色列互發飛彈),導致國際壓力對於這個地區的重視,但最近較為平靜。總體而言,雖然哈瑪斯因為恐怖攻擊而受到批評,和其他巴勒斯坦政權相比,他們因為較少腐敗而獲得支持。】

IMG_4070

6. A Day Visit the Israeli Startup Communities【參訪以色列創業社群的一天】

There’s no local market in Israel, so most startups immediately prepare their products to global market. They position themselves as small, non-hierarchical, resilient and fast-mover in innovation. As a small country, Israel leverages this as its advantage to have agile innovation process. However, since the time allocated to the visiting was limited, it’s pity that we didn’t really have a chance to understand the policy side to support startups in Israel.  【因為以色列的內需市場小,許多創業公司一開始就把目標設定在國際市場。他們將自己定位為小型、組織扁平、有彈性、快速因應市場反應的創新者。身為一個小國家,運用這項特質來發展敏捷創新流程。然而,因為參訪時間有限,很可惜沒有機會真正了解以色列扶持創業社群的政策。】

1 Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s